Life Sciences

Le teorie dell’invecchiamento cellulare

Un argomento di grande interesse attualmente è la scienza dell’invecchiamento: ingenti quantità di denaro vengono spese in tale iniziativa, ma di certo è una direzione di grande interesse.

Ci sono varie teorie sull’invecchiamento e una cosa è certa il processo dell’invecchiamento è unipersonale, quindi si può sottolineare che è soggettivo. In verità si può aggiungere anche qualcos’altro ma si dovrebbe sconfinare sul mistico e è preferibile lasciare alcune sorprese su altre pubblicazioni future. La scienza in sintesi dice che l’invecchiamento è un fenomeno fisiologico graduale ed individuale che apporta varie modifiche a livello corporeo, ma anche psichico e cognitivo.

Teorie dell’invecchiamento

Una prima teoria si basa sulla genetica che regola la trasmissione dei caratteri ereditari e il funzionamento delle cellule. In poche parole la replicazione cellulare nel tempo si trascina un numero di errori crescenti a cui l’organismo non è più in grado di ovviarvi mettendo delle riparazioni. In altre parole le cellule hanno la capacità di replicarsi solo un certo numero di volte. Citando la teoria di Hayflick sui telomeri, che non sono altro che dei prolungamenti costituiti da DNA alle basi dei cromosomi, il loro accorciamento è legato alla capacità di riparare il DNA, finché essi restano presenti. I telomeri sono sicuramente importanti ma lo sono anche i geni che vengono studiati per scoprire le grandi differenze di durata della vita tra specie animale, famiglie umane più longeve e malattie genetiche che accorciano la durata della vita, come la sindrome di Down. Le cellule staminali sono anch’esse molto studiate perché potrebbero sostituire tessuti malati nel campo della medicina rigenerativa. Poi vi sono delle teorie biochimiche con accumulo di prodotti di rifiuto, o teorie legate a fattori ambientali che provocano danni cellulari, radicali liberi ecc.

Percorso di vita salutare

La terza linea teorica sono le teorie mediche che sono correlate alla funzionalità dell’organismo. Ad esempio, tra le più accreditate, vi è quella ormonale, secondo cui alcuni ormoni diminuiscono con l’età, e per le teorie immunologiche, nessuna di queste è vincente se presa isolatamente, ma piuttosto bisogna considerare il processo dell’invecchiamento con una concausa di tutti questi fenomeni inclusi fattori psicologici.

Concludendo con una riflessione, forse a volte ci si rende conto che invecchiare non è un problema così grave, lo si fa cercando di vivere bene, mangiare bene, ridere, fare sport e probabilmente, seguendo questo percorso di vita salutare, riuscire ad invecchiare più lentamente.

Paolo Patrizio

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